Living Standards in Angola, 1760-1975

Hélder Carvalhal and Nuno Palma

We investigate the well-being of urban workers in Angola under colonialism. Using a newly compiled dataset derived from archival and secondary sources, we construct welfare ratios for both skilled and unskilled workers...
Read more »

Colonialism and development in Africa

Leander Heldring and James Robinson

In this paper we evaluate the impact of colonialism on development in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the world context, colonialism had very heterogeneous effects, operating through many mechanisms, sometimes encouraging development sometimes retarding...
Read more »