Denis Cogneau and Alexander Moradi
The partition of German Togoland after WWI provides a natural experiment allowing to test what impact colonial policies really had. Using a data set of recruits to the Ghana colonial army 1908-1955, we ﬁnd literacy and religious beliefs to diverge at the border between British and French mandated part of Togoland as early as in the 1920s. We attribute this to the diﬀerent policies towards missionary schools. The divergence is only visible in the South where educational and evangelization eﬀorts were strong enough. Using contemporary survey data we ﬁnd that border eﬀects originated at colonial times still persist today.